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Electronic Dazer, High Voltage, Jacobs Ladder, Voltage Doubler, Ion Wind, Ionizer, Ball of light
Electronic Dazer
By Tony van Roon (Original circuit by Rick Duker)

Never walk in fear with this one-evening project. It won't kill, but it is an effective way to say "Leave me alone!"



Parts List
R1 = 3K3, 5%
R2 = 1M, 5%
C1 = .1µF, monocapacitor
C2-C9 = 0.01µF 400 volt polyester capacitors
D1-D8 = 1N4007, 1-kVolt diodes
NE1 = Type NE-2 neon bulb
Q1 = MJE521 NPN power transistor (2N5190, NTE184, ECG184)
Q2 = MJE371 PNP power transistor (2N5193, NTE185, ECG185)
T1 = 1200 to 8 ohm audio power transformer
S1 = SPST momentary-contact, pushbutton switch


Additionally:
9-volt battery clip, 10 x 5 x 2.5cm plastic case, 7.5 x 4cm perfboard or pcboard, two 8/32 x 1-1/4 bolts and nuts for electrodes, adhesive for mounting NE-1, circuit board standoffs (optional), hookup wire, solder, etc.

WARNING: THIS DEVICE IS NOT A TOY! We present it for EDUCATIONAL and EXPERIMENTAL purposes ONLY. The circuit develops about 2000 volts at a respectable amperage. It can cause you pain and even damage if you become careless and touch its output terminals. The unit can also damage property as well so use it wisely. You should NEVER use the device on another person! It may not be against the law to possess such a device in your area, but if you use it on someone you may be deemed liable in a civil and/or criminal action suit. Don't just follow the golden rule after constructing the project, instead just don't do it unto anyone. Included in the article are a number of instructions on how to build, test, and operate the Dazer; all of them must be followed to the letter. Do not deviate from the procedure.

The Electronic Dazer is a modern, portable, personal-protection appliance. It generates hight potential energy to ward off vicious animals or other attackers. It is an aid to help exape from a potentially dangerous situation. the device develops about 2,000 volts. Higher voltages mabe be attained by adding aditional multiplier stages, but it should be noted that those stage will also increase the overal size of the unit.
The Dazer is very compact, being built into a small plastic case. It is powered by a single 9-volt battery, either NiCad or alkaline. (Editor's Note: the so-called 9-V NiCad actually provides only about 7.5V. Why? NiCad cells only give 1.25 per cell. 6 cells in a 9volt battery gives it 7.5V and so the Alkaline type would be a better choice).
The high voltage is applied to two electrodes which require only light contact to be effective. When touched with the Dazer, the victim will receive a stunning, but non-lethal jolt of electricity that will usually discourage any further encounters.
The electronic Dazer is apower supply which consists of a micro-size regenerative amplifier/oscillator coupled to an energy multiplier section. It should not be confused with a cheap induction-type cattle prods. The Dazer is more versatile than other high-voltage stun devices currently being sold. Those devices are basically high-voltage, AC generators which jam the nervous system. However, the Dazer may be used for heating and burning applications, or anywhere a high voltage DC supply is required.
(Tony's Note: Don't confuse the Dazer with a Stun-Gun. The Dazer emits high voltage about 2000V DC, a Stun-Gun generates VERY High Voltage of around 15,000V AC pulses, and can cause personal injury or even death. Stun-Guns are considered banned illegal fire-arms, you risk criminal prosecution if law enforcement finds one in your possession.)

How it Works:
Refering to the schematic diagram, the two power transistors Q1 and Q2, form a regenerative amplifier operating as a power oscillator. When Q1 turns on, Q2 turns on and that shorts the power supply across the primary of T1. That current pulse induces a high voltage in the secundary of T1. As C1 charges, Q1 turns on again and the cycle repeats itself. Therefore, a rapid series of DC pulses are generated and stepped up by T1 to approximately 300 volts at full battery charge. That voltage is rectified and increased by the voltage muliplier section which consists of C2 and C9, and D1 to D8. The final output is approximately 2000 volts. The neon bulb NE1 is used as a charge indicator and indicates that the unit is charge and operating properly.



Check out fig. 1 at the right; these are standard voltage doublers found in many data books and others like the NTE or Electro Sonic catelogue. They can even be found on the internet. Just do a search on one of the major search engines like Yahoo and search for 'voltage doubler' or 'HV'.


Electronic Dazer, High Voltage, Jacobs Ladder, Voltage Doubler, Ion Wind, Ionizer, Ball of light Construction:
As with all projects start out by laying out and indentifying. If you do not wish to make a printed-circuit-board, then you may use perf board as long as you remember to keep the leads of all high-voltage components isolated. That is to prevent sparks from arcing across your board. A 4 x 7.5 cm of perfboard is suitable for that purpose.
The first components you should mount are the two transistors Q1, Q2, transformer T1, resistor R1, and neon bulb NE1. Solder them in place (for PCB construction) being sure that the transformer and transistors are hooked up correctly. Apply a small amount of adhesive to the base of NE1 to hold it securely in place.
Mount D1 to D8 and C2 to C9 on the board and make all solder connections. Note proper polarity of the diodes. The off-board components come next. Solder in leads for S1, and the output electrodes. Also solder in the battery clip for B1.
Build the enclosure from some nonconductive material such as plastic. Drill holes for S1, NE1, and output electrodes. Be sure that the output electrodes are about a cm or greater apart. Connect the output wires tot the electrodes and insert them trhought holes from inside of the case. Thread on the retaining nuts and tighten them securely. Set the circuit board in the case and mount S1, securing with nut. That completes the construction.

Testing:
Before inserting the battery and closing the case, a few test measurements should be made to ensure correct operation.
With the ground clip connected to battery (do NOT connect the complete clip to the battery ONLY the ground), connect a volt or multimeter between the positive clip and the positive terminal of the battery. Set the meter for current reading, and press S1. You should measure a current of approximately 300 to 500mA. NE1 should be glowing.
With a high voltage multimeter or VOM, you should measure about 2000 volts on the output terminals. Those measurements indicate proper circuit operation. Let the unit run for about one minute (keep pressing S1). Transistors Q1 and Q2 should be warm, but not hot to the touch. Insert the battery in the holder and close the case. That wraps up the Electronic Dazer.

Operation and Use:
Activate the unit by pressing S1. NE1 will light indicating the dazer is fully charged and ready to use. Notice also that only one pole of the neon light will glow, indicating DC voltage present. It is important to remember that the device hods a charge even after S1 is off. To discharge, (do not press S1) touch the lectrodes to a metal object and not the healthy spark discharge.
The Electronic Dazer was designed as a self-defense weapon for use against vicious dogs or other attacking animals. The device is most effective when the electrodes contact an area of low resistance such as skin or flesh. Those include the snout or mouth since the resistance of those areas are much lower than areas of hair of fur. The electrodes could be pointed to penetrate these areas better. The dazer generates great stopping power. One contact will give a powerfull jolt and should discourage any further attacks. (I had my bench model 'turbo-charged' to 12,000 volts with the probes 2-inches (5cm) apart). If you decide to increase the output voltage, make sure to modify the diodes and capacitors to reflect this change in output.
Oh, and one very important fact. If for any reason you have been careless with the placement of diodes/caps (too close together, etc.) then only one zap will render it useless.
The device can burn and heat materials with low resistance. Those include flesh, moistened paper or wood, etc. That makes the unit potentially hazardous to humans. Remember, the dazer is not a toy but a quality electrical appliance and therefore must be treated accordingly. Use the utmost discretion with this device.
Another use for this device is as a high voltage DC power supply. It may be constructed as avariable power supply if output taps are taken from various stages of the voltage multiplier section. Remember, always disconnect the battery and fully discharge the capacitors before working with the circuitry.

Again, this project is for educational and/or laboratory purposes only and even so, it is your responsibility to check with local, provincial, and/or federal law enforcement in regards to the legality for having in possesion or the construction of this project. I take no responsibility, whatsoever, for the use and/or experimentation with this circuit and other lethal high voltage projects.

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